24시출장샵
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  • 장성출장샵┻예약금없는출장샵┇장성안마방 똥꼬‹장성안마방 풀코스›╘[장성천호동 안마방]▷장성안마방 아영이 토렌트↺장성삼송역 안마방❦장성스포츠마사지⇚장성전립선 마사지 느낌ナ장성몰카 안마방

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    카지노사이트
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    장성출장샵⇐예약금없는출장샵└장성안마방 똥꼬‹장성부산 안마방 가격›┲[장성전주 마사지]☼장성마사지 검색╬장성타이마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ✄장성베트남 하노이 마사지卐장성구리 마사지╃장성강서구청 마사지

    The governments of more than 190 nations 익산포항 안마방 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    장성출장샵↮출장부르는법┏장성안마방 똥꼬‹장성마사지 자격증›⇁[장성쿠알라룸푸르 마사지]┡장성영등포구청 안마방•장성승모근 마사지♂장성의정부 안마방↽장성마사지 카드 단속웃장성러시아 안마방

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    장성출장샵╄출장부르는법μ장성안마방 똥꼬‹장성시흥동 안마방›▦[장성레즈 마사지]◦장성천안 조건 만남㊣장성로미 마사지►장성출장마사wl┅장성대구 출장마사지☟장성엄마와 딸 마사지

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories okbari.xyz . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    장성출장샵♖24시출장샵♪장성안마방 똥꼬‹장성티켓 썰›✉[장성안마방 입문]♥장성안마방 나무✂장성사가정 마사지✚장성안마방 오픈시간☰장성오일 마사지♀장성신촌 마사지

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 광명고양이 안마방 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    장성출장샵✒24시출장샵➺장성안마방 똥꼬‹장성상주 안마방›♠[장성출장샵안내]↼장성신흥 안마방╢장성운서역 안마방┛장성아프리카tv 마사지→장성셀룰라이트 마사지┻장성서울 조건 카톡

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 카지노사이트 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

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  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    장성출장샵☰출장부르는법✃장성안마방 똥꼬‹장성양배추 안마방›⇣[장성마스카 안마방]₪장성화성 안마방θ장성안마방 가격▶장성대딸ρ장성출장여대생큐장성고양이 안마방

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 영동보지 마사지 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 카지노사이트 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    서울출장샵
    고성대전 안마방 군산출장안마 대구서울 마사지 홈 서비스
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 카지노사이트 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    장성출장샵ム출장부르는법☺장성안마방 똥꼬‹장성안마방 수면실›☞[장성송내 마사지]キ장성부산 출장 서비스ラ장성셀프 마사지ⓥ장성태국 마사지 후기➼장성강남 왁싱샵★장성셀프 어깨 마사지

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 양산출장만남 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    장성출장샵►예약╧장성안마방 똥꼬‹장성안마방 스킬›☼[장성마사지 마무리]㍿장성대전 출장안마↺장성항문 마사지↠장성삼성역 안마방ヘ장성태국 마사지ツ장성창녕 마사지

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 창원출장안마 .

    음성방콕 에스코트
    영덕마사지 맛사지 카지노사이트 안동오피 마사지
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    장성출장샵↷출장부르는법⇪장성안마방 똥꼬‹장성출장 보증금›▧[장성출장샵]◥장성안마방 튜브╇장성거유 마사지☼장성서울대입구 마사지➦장성선입금 없는 출장 만남┡장성서혜부 마사지 란

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 카지노사이트 .

    장성출장샵▤출장부르는법❃장성안마방 똥꼬‹장성출장 오피›◄[장성계산택지 안마방]☍장성안마방 모닝콜ღ장성하노이 마사지▷장성춘천 태국 마사지╩장성춘천 안마방▨장성강릉 모텔 가격

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 군산출장안마 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 고령척추 마사지 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    장성출장샵☈24시출장샵┄장성안마방 똥꼬‹장성분당 안마방›⇩[장성마사지 레전드]╝장성상봉동 안마방セ장성섹스 마사지┚장성보령 마사지⇔장성화곡동 안마방エ장성인천공항 마사지

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

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    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 괴산마사지 porn , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 전주출장안마 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 창원출장샵 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 전라남도일본 av 마사지 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 대구출장샵 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    장성출장샵⇌출장부르는법╢장성안마방 똥꼬‹장성안마방 초이스 torrent›➺[장성호치민 호텔 마사지].장성트랜스젠더 안마방↶장성포항 타이 마사지➛장성림프선 마사지☆장성안마방 무료야동┤장성야동 실제

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 군산출장샵 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 대구출장안마 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 카지노사이트.xyz showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    장성출장샵☃24시출장샵┭장성안마방 똥꼬‹장성명동 마사지›§[장성커플 마사지 후기]☶장성마사지 방법◥장성일본 마사지 tumblr⇩장성역삼역 안마방♔장성안마방 토렌트✄장성콜걸업소

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    김제오류동 마사지
    대구출장샵 신안출장시 카지노사이트
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    장성출장샵♔24시출장샵⇩장성안마방 똥꼬‹장성인천안마›➻[장성마사지 효능]★장성한국 마사지♠장성판상근 마사지↩장성안중 마사지═장성여교사 마사지◄장성군자역 안마방

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.장성출장샵장성마사지 출장▒장성야탑 마사지✄[장성군포 안마방]장성유성 안마방 후기➵장성유부녀 마사지⇩장성콜걸강추﹃장성부천역 안마방█카지노사이트출장부르는법장성오류동 마사지●장성맹인 마사지╘﹝장성다낭 마사지 vip﹞장성영등포 마사지☍장성익산 안마방✗장성마사지 정보⇤장성구의 마사지✙장성출장샵부여이상근 마사지장성라오스 마사지 2차➳장성다방 콜↿〖장성거제 옥포 안마방〗장성뱃살 마사지♪장성안마방 애널┳장성마사지 마무리⇙장성대구 출장 마사지♣장성태국 마사지 후기☇장성종아리 근육 마사지↺「장성안마방 싼」장성제주도 안마방♨장성av 마사지 추천┞장성얼굴 림프 마사지┟장성타이 마사지 후기☣장성부평 마사지 샵☷장성안마방 나무➢〔장성응암동 마사지〕장성출장서비스보장♝장성대전 마사지 추천⇪장성출장샵추천☏장성모텔 아가씨↢장성타이마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ▒장성대화역 마사지➼﹝장성태국 에스코트 비용﹞장성회음부 마사지➼장성상무지구 마사지◎장성유흥인 토렌트⇎장성마사지 몰 카↱예약금없는출장샵강진수암 마사지출장부르는법장성길동 마사지◎장성인도 뉴델리 마사지◀<장성상대보호구역>장성타이 마사지 아로마♈장성안마방 아영이↱장성대구 모텔 추천リ장성신림 아로마 마사지♡장성출장샵장성출장샵광주출장안마장성파주 안마방장성구글 안마방장성송도 안마방장성안마방 여자장성출장샵장성대전 모텔 다방♪장성지저분한 섹스 나고야 여성전용 마사지◥﹛장성안마방 대전﹜장성흉부 마사지☄장성안마방 쓰리섬ω장성러브어게인 만남➳장성길동 안마방↠의성y존 마사지

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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